Správné svařování trubek a tvarovek z PPR a PP-RCT

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Source: http://simvolika.com.ua/kupiti-u-lvovi-sportivne-vzuttja-onlajn-internet/



Watch video "rura PPR"

Správné svařování trubek a tvarovek z PPR a PP-RCT

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA

A & M RECORDS, INC., a corporation; GEFFEN RECORDS, INC., a corporation; INTERSCOPE RECORDS, a general partnership; SONY MUSIC ENTERTAINMENT, INC., a corporation; MCA RECORDS, INC., a corporation; ATLANTIC RECORDING CORPORATION, a corporation; ISLAND RECORDS, INC., a corporation; MOTOWN RECORDS COMPANY L. P., a limited partnership; CAPITOL RECORDS, a corporation; LA FACE RECORDS, a joint venture; BMG MUSIC d/ b/ a THE RCA RECORDS LABEL, a general partnership; UNIVERSAL RECORDS INC., a corporation; ELEKTRA ENTERTAINMENT GROUP INC., a corporation; ARISTA RECORDS, INC., a corporation; SIRE RECORDS GROUP, INC., a corporation; POLYGRAM RECORDS, INC., a corporation; VIRGIN RECORDS AMERICA, INC., a corporation; and WARNER BROS. RECORDS INC., a corporation,

Plaintiff( s), v. NAPSTER, INC., a corporation, and DOES 1-100,

No. C 99-5183 MHP No. C 00-0074 MHP

JERRY LEIBER, individually and d/ b/ a JERRY LEIBER MUSIC; MIKE STOLLER, individually and d/ b/ a MIKE STOLLER MUSIC; and FRANK MUSIC CORP., on behalf of themselves and all others similarly situated, Plaintiff( s),

v. NAPSTER, INC., Defendant( s).

_____________________________________/

The matter before the court concerns the boundary between sharing and theft, personal use and the unauthorized worldwide distribution of copyrighted music and sound recordings.1 On December 6, 1999, A& M Records and seventeen other record companies ("record company plaintiffs") filed a complaint for contributory and vicarious copyright infringement, violations of the California Civil Code section 980( a)( 2), and unfair competition against Napster, Inc., 2 an Internet start-up that enables users to download MP3 music files without payment. On January 7, 2000, plaintiffs Jerry Leiber, Mike Stoller, and Frank Music Corporation filed a complaint for vicarious and contributory copyright infringement on behalf of a putative class of similarly-situated music publishers (" music publisher plaintiffs") against Napster, Inc. and former CEO Eileen Richardson. The music publisher plaintiffs filed a first amended complaint on April 6, 2000, and on May 24, 2000, the court entered a stipulation of dismissal of all claims against Richardson. 3 Now before this court is the record company and music publisher plaintiffs' joint motion to preliminarily enjoin Napster, Inc. from engaging in or assisting others in copying, downloading, uploading, transmitting, or distributing copyrighted music without the express permission of the rights owner. In opposition to this motion, defendant seeks to expand the "fair use" doctrine articulated in Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U. S. 417 (1984), to encompass the massive downloading of MP3 files by Napster users. Alternatively, defendant contends that, even if this third-party activity constitutes direct copyright infringement, plaintiffs have not shown probable success on the merits of their contributory and vicarious infringement claims. Defendant also asks the court to find that copyright holders are not injured by a service created and promoted to facilitate the free downloading of music files, the vast majority of which are copyrighted.

Having considered the parties' arguments, the court grants plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction against Napster, Inc. The court makes the following Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law to support the preliminary injunction under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 65( d).

I. FINDINGS OF FACT

A. MP3 Technology

1. Digital compression technology makes it possible to store audio recordings in a digital format that uses less memory and may be uploaded and downloaded over the Internet. See David M. Lisi Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 11. MP3 is a popular, standard format used to store such compressed audio files. See Edward Kessler Dec. � 3; 4 Lisi Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 11. Compressing data into MP3 format results in some loss of sound quality. See List Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 12. However, because MP3 files are smaller, they require less time to transfer and are therefore better suited to transmission over the Internet. See id. at 11.

2. Consumers typically acquire MP3 files in two ways. First, users may download audio recordings that have already been converted into MP3 format by using an Internet service such as Napster. See Lisi Dec. (Tygar Rep.) at 11. Second, "ripping" software makes it possible to copy an audio compact disc (" CD") directly onto a computer hard-drive; ripping software compresses the millions of bytes of information on a typical CD into a smaller MP3 file that requires a fraction of the storage space. See id.; Kessler Dec. � 32; 1 Laurence F. Pulgram Dec., Exh. A (Conroy Dep.) at 13: 19-24.

B. Defendant's Business

1. Napster, Inc. is a start-up company based in San Mateo, California. It distributes its proprietary file-sharing software free of charge via its Internet website. People who have downloaded this software can log-on to the Napster system and share MP3 music files with other users who are also logged-on to the system. See Kessler Dec. � 6. It is uncontradicted that Napster users currently upload or download MP3 files without payment to each other, defendant, or copyright owners. According to a Napster, Inc. executive summary, the Napster service gives its users the unprecedented ability to "locate music by their favorite artists in MP3 format." 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.), Exh. 127 at ER000131.5 Defendant boasts that it "takes the frustration out of locating servers with MP3 files" by providing a peer-to-peer file-sharing system that allows Napster account holders to conduct relatively sophisticated searches for music files on the hard drives of millions of other anonymous users. See A& M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 2000 WL 573136, at *1 (N. D. Cal. May 12, 2000) (citing Def. 's Mot. for Summ. Adjud.) at 4.

2. Although Napster was the brainchild of a college student who wanted to facilitate music-swapping by his roommate, see 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. B (Fanning Dep.) at 31: 10-35: 1, it is far from a simple tool of distribution among friends and family. According to defendant's internal documents, there will be 75 million Napster users by the end of 2000. See 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 318: 19- 319: 1, Exh. 166 at 002725. At one point, defendant estimated that even without marketing, its "viral service" was growing by more than 200 percent per month. Id., Exh. 127 at ER00130. Approximately 10,000 music files are shared per second using Napster, and every second more than 100 users attempt to connect to the system. See Kessler Dec. � 29.

3. Napster, Inc. currently collects no revenues and charges its clientele no fees; it is a free service. See, e. g., 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 179: 15. However, it has never been a non-profit organization. See id. at 116: 10. It plans to delay the maximization of revenues while it attracts a large user base. See id., Exh. 127 at ER00130; 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 160: 1-162: 14, Exh. 254 at SF00099. The value of the system grows as the quantity and quality of available music increases. See id. at 112: 18-113: 2, Exh. 127 at ER00130; David J. Teece Rep. at 4. Defendant's internal documents reveal a strategy of attaining a "critical mass" of music in an "ever-expanding library" as new members bring their MP3 collections online. See 1 Frackman Dec. (Richardson Dep.), Exh. 127 at ER00130; Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 160: 1-162: 14, Exh. 254 at SF00099. Defendant eventually plans to "monetize" its user base. See id. at 115: 24-116: 13; Teece Rep. at 4, 7-11. Potential revenue sources include targeted email; advertising; commissions from links to commercial websites; and direct marketing of CDs, Napster products, and CD burners and rippers. See 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 160: 1-162: 14, Exh. 254 at SF00099-100; Teece Rep. at 2-3. Defendant also may begin to charge fees for a premium or commercial version of its software. See Teece Rep. at 8; cf. 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. A (Richardson Dep.) at 179: 6-25. The existence of a large user base that increases daily and can be "monetized" makes Napster, Inc. a potentially attractive acquisition for larger, more established firms. See Teece Rep. at 7.

4. Napster Inc.'s value -- which is measured, at least in part, by the size of its user base -- lies between 60 and 80 million dollars. See Teece Rep. at 11-12; Def. 's Opp. at 35. Defendant obtained substantial capital infusions after the onset of this litigation. For example, in May 2000, the venture firm Hummer Winblad purchased a twenty-percent ownership interest in the company for 13 million dollars; other investors simultaneously invested 1.5 million dollars. See Hank Barry Dec. � 7.

5. The evidence shows that virtually all Napster users download or upload copyrighted files and that the vast majority of the music available on Napster is copyrighted. Eighty-seven percent of the files sampled by plaintiffs' expert, Dr. Ingram Olkin, "belong to or are administered by plaintiffs or other copyright holders." 6 Olkin Rep. at 7. After analyzing Olkin's data, Charles J. Hausman, anti-piracy counsel for the RIAA, determined that 834 out of 1,150 files in Olkin's download database belong to or are administered by plaintiffs; plaintiffs alone own the copyrights to more than seventy percent of the 1,150 files. See Charles J. Hausman Dec. � 8. Napster users shared these files without authorization. See id.

6. Napster, Inc. has never obtained licenses to distribute or download, or to facilitate others in distributing or downloading, the music that plaintiffs own. See Kevin Conroy Dec. � 4; Richard Cottrell Dec. � 5; Mark R. Eisenberg Dec. � 21; Lawrence Kenswil Dec. � 15; Paul Vidich Dec. � 8; Mike Stoller Dec. � 11.

7. Defendant's internal documents indicate that it seeks to take over, or at least threaten, plaintiffs' role in the promotion and distribution of music. See, e. g., 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.), 160: 1- 162: 14, Exh. 254, at SF00099 (declaring that "[ u] ltimately Napster could evolve into a full-fledged music

distribution platform, usurping the record industry as we know it today and allowing us to digitally promote and distribute emerging artists at a fraction of the cost" but noting that "we should focus on our realistic short-term goals while wooing the industry before we try to undermine it").7

8. Defendant's internal documents also demonstrate that its executives knew Napster users were engaging in unauthorized downloading and uploading of copyrighted music. See, e. g. 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 160: 1-162: 14, Exh. 254 at SF00100 (stating that Napster users "are exchanging pirated music."); id. at SF00102 ("[ W] e are not just making pirated music available but also pushing demand"). Several Napster executives admitted in their depositions that they believed many of the millions of MP3 music files available on Napster were copyrighted. See, e. g., 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. B (Fanning Dep.) at 105: 10-108: 2.

9. At least on paper, the promotion of new artists constituted an aspect of defendant's plan as early as October 1999. See Sean F. Parker Dec. � 5 & Exh. B 8 ; Scott Krause Dec. � 6. New or unsigned artists now may promote their works and distribute them in MP3 format via the Napster service. See Krause Dec. �� 8-15. Napster, Inc. has sought business alliances and developed both Internet-and software-based technologies to support its New Artist Program. See Parker Dec. � 6. However, the court finds that the New Artist Program accounts for a small portion of Napster use and did not become central to defendant's business strategy until this action made it convenient to give the program top billing. An early version of the Napster website advertised the ease with which users could find their favorite popular music without "wading through page after page of unknown artists." 1 Frackman Dec., Exh. C (Parker Dep.) at 104: 16-105: 10, Exh. 235. Defendant did not even create the New Artist Program that runs on its Internet website until April 2000 -- well after plaintiffs filed this action.9 See Krause Dec. � 9, Exh. A. Moreover, in Olkin's sample of 1,150 files (which were randomly selected from over 550,000), only 232 files matched any of the 19,440 names that were listed in defendant's new artist database as of July 2000. See Olkin Reply Dec. �� 3-5; Hausman Reply Dec. �� 3-6. An RIAA representative who analyzed the data also noted that the list of so-called new artists actually contained many popular stars represented by major record labels -- among them teen sensation Britney Spears and the legendary alternative rock band Nirvana. See Hausman Reply Dec. � 5. Once established artists were eliminated from the results, only eleven new artists and fourteen of their music files remained in Olkin's sample of 1,150 files. See id. � 6.

10. Defendant employs the term "space-shifting" to refer to the process of converting a CD the consumer already owns into MP3 format and using Napster to transfer the music to a different computer -- from home to office, for example. 10 See Def. Opp. at 12. The court finds that space-shifting accounts for a de minimis portion of Napster use and is not a significant aspect of defendant's business. According to the court's understanding of the Napster technology, a user who wanted to space-shift files from her home to her office would have to log-on to the system from her home computer, leave that computer online, commute to work, and log-on to Napster from her office computer to access the desired file. In the meantime, many users might download it before she reached the office. Common sense dictates that this use does not draw users to the system. Defendant fails to cite a single Napster, Inc. document indicating that the company saw space-shifting as an attraction for its user base, and survey evidence shows that almost half of college-student survey respondents previously owned less than ten percent of the songs they have downloaded. See E. Deborah Jay Rep. at 4, 21 & Tbl. 7.

C. The Napster Technology

1. Internet users may download defendant's proprietary MusicShare software free of charge from the Napster website. This free software enables users to access the Napster computer network. See Kessler Dec. � 6.

2. The software becomes fully functional after users register with Napster by selecting an account name, or "user name," and a password. See Kessler Dec. �� 6, 23. Persons who register may include biographical data, but registration does not require a real name or address. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 255: 20-257: 22. Napster does not associate user names with the biographical information that individuals provide at registration. See id. Indeed, after a user logs-on, her physical address information is no longer available to the Napster server. See id. 3. The software features a browser interface, search engine, and chat functions that operate in conjunction with defendant's online network of servers. See id. �� 6, 13. The software also contains a "hotlist" tool that allows users to compile and store lists of other account holders' user names. See id. � 8. In addition, the Napster software may be used to play and categorize audio files, which users can store in specific file directories on their hard drives. See id. �� 6-7. Those directories, which allow account holders to share files on Napster, constitute the "user library." Id. Some users store their MP3 files in such directories; others do not. See id.

4. Defendant maintains clusters of servers that compose its network or system. See Kessler Dec. � 13. Account holders who access the Napster network may communicate, share files, and learn of designated hotlist names only within the cluster to which they are assigned. See id. Users can access the network of servers free of charge.

5. Once an account holder signs on to the Napster network, the Napster browser interacts with its proprietary server-side software. See id. �� 7, 8; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 54: 16-56: 10. If a user sets the "allowable uploads" function of the MusicShare software above zero, all of the MP3 file names she stores in her user library automatically become available to other online Napster users. See Kessler Dec. � 7. However, before the client software uploads MP3 file names to defendant's master servers, it "validates" the files stored in the user library directories. See 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 145: 2-18. The client software reads those files to ensure they are indeed MP3 files, checking to see whether they contain the proper syntax specification and content. See id. If the files are not properly formatted, their file names will not be not uploaded to the Napster servers. See id. Once the file names are successfully uploaded to the servers, each user library, identified by a user name, becomes a "location" on the servers. Kessler Dec. � 8. Napster locations are short-lived; they are respectively added or purged every time a user signs on or off of the network. See id. Thus, a user's MP3 files are only accessible to other users while she is online.

6. A user who is logged-on to the Napster servers via the client software may access the content of other users' uploaded "locations" in one of two ways: (a) by utilizing defendant's proprietary search engine, or (b) by employing the hotlist tool featured in the client software. See id. � 12.

7. An account holder may use the search tools included in the Napster client software to find MP3 files. See id. � 10. The server-side application software maintains a search index that is updated in real time as users log-on and -off of the system. See id.; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 56: 3-10. The file-name index contains the names of MP3 files that on-line users save in their designated user library directories. See Kessler Dec. �� 7, 14; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 55: 14-56: 10; Exh. 2. Users who wish to search for a song or artist may do so by entering the name of the song or artist in the search fields of the client software and then clicking the "Find It" button. When the search form is transmitted to the Napster network, the Napster servers send the requesting user a list of files that include the same term( s) she entered on the search form. See Kessler Dec. � 5; 2 Frackman Dec., Exh. E (Kessler Dep.) at 56: 3-10. After the application software returns a list of specific MP3 file names to the requesting user, the user then must peruse the list to determine whether she desires any of those files. See id. � 10. She must read through the list because the Napster application software does not search for a particular song or recording artist per se. Napster does not organize MP3 files based on content because, currently, they are not designed for such

Source: http://news.cnet.com/html/ne/Special/Napster/napster_patel.html



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